The following link is profound. The current issue of EdgeScience takes a brilliant look at how the current era in science is more about rushing technology to market to benefit society than the underlying universal truths that must first be studied. The consequences have been strikingly similar to the ‘Housing Bubble’ and may not have fully burst yet.
Patrons: metabolites/compounds/substrates and products
Managers: two-component proteins to regulate gene transcription
Employee list: genome
Copy machine: DNA replication machinery
So, in the last part our restaurant was going great and we opened up a new restaurant with the same employee list among other things. The two restaurants are now independent of each other and are free to act accordingly.
What if things change and times are not going as well? The overall number of patrons drastically decreases, not enough electricity (ATP) to run the restaurant or running water (redox potential)? What if disaster is about to strike? How can the restaurant prepare all the managers, employees, the building, the doors, the patrons for it?
Luckily the restaurant has a monitoring system that can quickly make sure the restaurant will be ready for anything that comes its way. The monitoring system can take snapshots of all data generated by the restaurant: power supply, water supply, patron count, employee count, conditions outside the restaurant like weather or competing restaurants. The monitoring system is the bacterial second messenger systems. With the support of the managers, the monitoring system can instantaneously keep track of all variables and make changes as needed.
The system is detecting the start of a drought. This drought will lower the number of patrons coming and going from the restaurant. The drought will also change the available electricity and water supply of the restaurant. The monitoring system sounds the alarm, a message is sent over the intercom for all the managers and employees to hear and react to. The intercom message alerts some managers to call in additional employees while telling others to stop their work. Some employees take on a new job in preparation for the drought. The intercom message is the bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP. The entire restaurant begins preparations for the drought so it can survive until better times are present. Other than changes to managers and employees, some new employees are called in to prepare the building itself. Perhaps to change the number of doors. The employees may also change the exterior of the building to better withstand the drought like changing a wood exterior to a brick or stucco one. The brick or stucco are the exopolysaccharides, complex sugars on the exterior of the cell that can serve as protection or to help cells adhere to each other to ride out the hard times together.
When times change, the restaurant has to be able to change with them. That is why these restaurants have been in business for ~3 billion years and still going strong.
Many say storytelling in science is a great way to describe complex material in an understandable way for the masses. In this post, I will try to use an analogy to illustrate the complexity of a typical motile bacterial cell.
Microbial Physiology through Storytelling
If there is anything Americans know, it’s food. We are a nation obsessed with food and frequent restaurants on a regular basis.
Imagine your favorite restaurant as one huge bacterial cell.
When I travel to another city, I can’t rely on habit to guide me to a restaurant for dinner. I have to search for it while driving down the road. In order to know when I have found the restaurant I am searching for, I must rely on signs telling everyone what the restaurant is. The sign is a way to recognize and identify the building as i) a restaurant and ii) the specific type of restaurant. Bacteria do the same. They have ‘signs’ (proteins and other molecules) attached to the outside of the cell that lets other cells around identify what the cell is. I go into the restaurant through a door that allows patrons to move in and out of the building like bacteria have gates or channels that allow molecules to move in and out of the cell. Almost always, patrons are different leaving than they were when entering the restaurant; filled with yummy food they consumed and perhaps stopping to make a deposit in the waste room before leaving. Many molecules that leave a cell are different than those that enter. The workers of the restaurant have to keep track of the number of patrons entering and leaving the building to efficiently serve the patrons. Each employee has a specific job to do for very specific patrons. The employees have to identify their patrons and serve them as described by the bosses. Bacteria have an array of workers (proteins and protein complexes) that have very specific job descriptions depending on the patrons (substrates and product molecules) present in the cell. The restaurant survives by serving as many patrons as possible efficiently and correctly just as a cell must survive by responding correctly and quickly to everything in its environment.
A major reason Science does not have a more prevalent position in our society and government is the lack of understanding of what Science really is and can do for us. So, I have decided to use this blog as a starting point to hopefully explain some of the crazy, wild, innovative, creative, and science-fictionesque stories coming out about current research. I hope this will get more of the public excited or, at least, interested in what science and health research can accomplish.
During the current political environment, R&D budgets are being reduced or frozen. For example, the budget for NIH, the largest public funding program in the U.S., is lower than it was in 2003. The “Plan B” outlined in the Budget Control Act of 2011 (aka sequester) plus the current 6-month continuing resolution cycle employed by Congress has all in the research community scared; not only for their own jobs but also for what it is saying to our citizens and people across the globe. Our ‘leaders’ in Washington no longer consider basic research a priority. In essence, the ‘leaders’ are saying, “We are too worried about our re-election bids to see the big picture and the catastrophic consequences of our short-sightedness”.
The innovations and technologies directly or indirectly resulting from basic research have brought invaluable prosperity to this country and has enriched the lives of each of us directly. Cuts to research are the essentially the same as cuts to flesh. Eventually, the infection at the cut spreads to the entire body. The cut doesn’t suffer, the body suffers. John Donne said it well in his passage, Meditation 17 Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions:
No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main; if a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if a manor of thy friend’s or of thine own were; any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee.
The bell is tolling in the U.S. and has for some time now. We all suffer when ignoring our research community.